2.1.1 Taxonomy (scientific Classification)

Taxonomy (scientific Classification)

It is very important to classify the organisms scientifically to understand and study the organisms clearly. The word taxa means group of organisms. We have to consider many characters to place some organisms into one group.

  1. Write the order of classification?
    1. The order of classification is

Kingdom                                                  

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

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  1. Name the kingdoms?
    1. There are 5 Kingdoms
      1. Animalia ( all animals including man)
      2. Plantia (all Plants including insectivorus plants)
      3. Fungia (all fungus like mushrooms)
      4. Monera ( blue green algae, bacteria)
      5. Protista ( Euglena)

 

  1. Name the phylums of the Kingdom Animalia?
    1. There are 10 phylums in the kindom animalia
      1. Porifera (sponges)
      2. Cnidaria (jelly fish, coral polyps, sea anemone, hydra)
      3. Anelida (earthworms)
      4. Platyhelminthes (tape worms eg. Teania solium )
      5. Arthropoda (crab, lobster, prawn, barnacle)
      6. Mollusca (snail, ocopus, squid, cuttle fish)
      7. Bryozoa (Sea mat, Ectoproct)
      8. Chetognatha ( arrow worm)
      9. Echinodermata (starfish, seacucumber, sea urchin, feather star etc)
      10. Chordata.  (man, fish, frog, snake, turtle, birds etc)

 

  1. Write the rules of the Binomial nomenclature?
    1. The Scientific name of an organism must contain two names

                                            i.            The first name must be Genus

                                          ii.            The second name must be Species

                                        iii.            The First letter of the genus must be capital

                                         iv.            The first letter of the species must be simple

                                           v.            The scientific name must be underlined if we are

                                                            writing on board or book.

                                         vi.            The scientific name can be italised or bolded or change colour or change font to make it differ from the other text when writing in computer.

 

  1. What is dichotomous key? Give one example.
    1. The word DI means Two, the chotomous means Characters. To tell difference between two organisms we have to take some characters like fins, mouth, eye, body shape, colours, scales etc.

We do not take size as a character because different fishes grow at different rates in different places based on food and environmental conditions.

                   To under stand about organisms we have to use dichotomous key.

Rules of Dichotomous key are

  • Count the number of organisms and reduce one number from that to get answer for charectors.
  • Write the character numbers and add A and B in each character.
  • If two or more organisms sharing same character write goto ____.
  • If only one organism present for a character write the name of the organism.

 

Simple dichotomous key for crab, sea-cucumber, turtle and octopus.

In this example there are four organisms present  so  (4-1= 3)

1

              A    Having shell on the body        Goto 2                              (crab and turtle)

              B    having no shell on the body   Goto 3                              (sea-cucumber

                                                                                                                               and octopus)

2

              A    Has jointed legs                        Crab

              B    Has no jointed legs                  turtle

 

3

             A   has two visible eyes                octopus

             B   has no visible eyes                  sea-cucumber

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  1. Updated notes Fisheries Science grade 8 and 9 | Prasad.fisheries - March 10, 2013

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